Journal of Computational Methods In Engineering
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Computational Methods in Engineering - Journal articles for year 2017, Volume 36, Number 1Yektaweb Collection - http://www.yektaweb.comen2017/9/10Structural Damage Detection using Frequency Response Function Index and Surrogate Model Based on Optimized Extreme Learning Machine Algorithm
http://jcme.iut.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=678&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Utilizing surrogate models based on artificial intelligence methods for detecting structural damages has attracted the attention of many researchers in recent decades. In this study, a new kernel based on Littlewood-Paley Wavelet (LPW) is proposed for Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) algorithm to improve the accuracy of detecting multiple damages in structural systems. ELM is used as metamodel (surrogate model) of exact finite element analysis of structures in order to efficiently reduce the computational cost through updating process. In the proposed two-step method, first a damage index, based on Frequency Response Function (FRF) of the structure, is used to identify the location of damages. In the second step, the severity of damages in identified elements is detected using ELM. In order to evaluate the efficacy of ELM, the results obtained from the proposed kernel were compared with other kernels proposed for ELM as well as Least Square Support Vector Machine algorithm. The solved numerical problems indicated that ELM algorithm accuracy in detecting structural damages is increased drastically in case of using LPW kernel.</em></strong></div>
R. GhiasiComparative Study of Laminar Convective Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Nanofluids through Curved Geometries
http://jcme.iut.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=680&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>In this paper, numerical simulation of flow and heat transfer of Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>/water nanofluid has been carried out through three different geometries involving a straight pipe, a 90<sup>o</sup> curved pipe and a 180<sup>o</sup> curved pipe under constant heat flux condition. Employing singe-phase model for the nanofluid, the Navier-Stokes and energy equations for an incompressible and laminar flow have been solved in a body fitted coordinate system using a homemade code based on control-volume approach, while all thermophysical properties of the nanofluid are dependent on considered temperature. The effects of different nanoparticle concentration and centrifugal forces on the temperature and pressure field have been examined in detail. The accordance of numerical results with experimental data expresses the accuracy of the employed numerical method for simulating flow and heat transfer in the curved pipes, as well as the accuracy of the single-phase model of the nanofluid. The Presented results indicated that both the nanoparticle and curvature effects improve the heat transfer characteristics dramatically, but at the expense of considerable increase in pressure drop. Furthermore, the results showed that in order to obtain the optimum operating conditions of nanofluids, different parameters such as heat transfer enhancement and pressure drop must be considered simultaneously. Finally, a method has been proposed to indicate the proper nanofluid and flow geometry for special practical applications.</em></strong></div>
E. Ebrahimnia-BajestanSimulation of Elastic Wave Propagation through Steel/Epoxy Phononic Crystal Waveguide by Displacement-Based Finite Difference Method
http://jcme.iut.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=681&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>In order to obtain transmission spectra through a phononic crystal as well as its waveguide, a new algorithm is presented in this paper. By extracting displacement-based forms of elastic wave equations and their discretization, Displacement- Based Finite Difference Time Domain </em>(<em>DBFDTD</em>)<em> algorithm is presented. Two numerical examples are solvcd with this method and the results are compared with the conventional Finite Difference Time Domain </em>(<em>FDTD</em>)<em> method. In addition, the computational cost of the new approach has been compared with the conventional FDTD method. This comparison showed that the computation time of the DBFDTD method is 40 percent less than that of the conventional FDTD method.</em></strong></div>
M. MoradiNonlinear Bending Analysis of Composite Cylindrical Shells Reinforced by Functionally Graded Carbon Nanotube in Circumferential Direction
http://jcme.iut.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=682&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>In this study, nonlinear axisymmetric bending analysis of Functionally Graded Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Composite </em>(<em>FG-CNTRC</em>)<em> cylindrical shell is investigated. Four distribution types of carbon nanotubes along the thickness direction of shells are considered, including a uniform and three kinds of functionally graded distributions. The material properties of FG-CNTRC shells are determined according to the modified rule of mixture. The equilibrium equations are derived based on First-order Shear Deformation Shell Theory </em>(<em>FSDT</em>)<em> and nonlinear Donnell strains. The coupled nonlinear governing equations are solved by Dynamic Relaxation </em>(<em>DR</em>)<em> method combined with central finite difference technique for different combinations of simply supported and clamped boundary conditions. For this purpose, a FORTRAN computer program is provided to generate the numerical results. In order to verify the accuracy of the formulation and present method, the results are compared with those available in the literatures for ABAQUS finite element package, as well as a similar report for an isotropic function shell. The appropriate accordance of the results indicated the accuracy of employed numerical solution in the present study. Finally, a parametric study is carried out to study the effects of distribution of carbon nanotubes </em>(<em>CNTs</em>)<em>, shell radius and width-to-thickness ratios, boundary conditions and volume fraction of CNTs on the deflection, stress and moment resultants in detail. The results show that with increase of CNTS volume fractions, the O and UD distributions have the most and the least decrease of deflection, respectively, in both clamped and simply supported boundary conditions.</em></strong></div>
M. E. GolmakaniFinite Element Model Updating of an Offshore Jacket Platforms using Experimental Modal Analysis
http://jcme.iut.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=683&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>An important requirement in design is to be able to compare experimental results from prototype structures with predicted results from a corresponding finite element model. In this context, updating the model using measured vibration test can lead to proposing a desired finite element model. Therefore, this paper presents indirect and direct based numerical updating study of a reduced scale four-story spatial frame structure of offshore jacket platforms constructed and tested at the Structural Dynamics and Vibration Laboratory. Besides, the selection procedure for inactive degrees of freedom in the process of reduced model is evalated, with a reasonable criterion, by using sensitivity analysis of system response under base excitation. This performance leads to faster convergence of iterative algorithm and also, eliminates spurious modes. Since the significant problem fundamental to dynamic structural analysis is the amount of time and cost required for computation, the use of these methods will save both in time and cost.</em></strong></div>
F. HosseinlouTheoretical-experimental Determination of Nonlinear Crack Parameters in the Cracked Beam under Nonlinear Low Amplitude Vibration
http://jcme.iut.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=684&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>In the vibration of a cracked structure with small amplitude oscillations, the crack necessarily is not fully open or fully closed. Therefore, in order to provide a realistic model for the crack, one should relate the stiffness and damping at the crack location to the amount of the opening of the crack. In this study, a continuous model for vibration of a beam with a fatigue crack under low amplitude oscillations is presented in which the crack is not fully open or fully closed. By introducing a nonlinear model for the crack, the equation governing the vibration of the cracked beam is extracted. In order to consider the nonlinear behavior of the crack and to take into account the energy loss at the crack during the vibration, the bending moment at the crack location was considered as a nonlinear function of the angle of crack opening and its variations with respect to the time. The governing nonlinear equation is solved using the perturbation method. The solution reveals the dependency of the resonance frequency on the vibration amplitude. Analytical and explicit expressions are also derived for the nonlinear stiffness coefficient and the damping coefficient of the crack at the crack location. Finally, using the derived expressions for the crack parameters and experimental tests results for cracked beam, the nonlinear stiffness coefficient and the damping coefficient at the crack location is obtained.</em></strong></div>
M. RezaeeOn the Performance of Linear and Nonlinear Dynamic Absorbers for Beams Subjected to Moving Loads
http://jcme.iut.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=685&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>The present work studies the performance of linear and nonlinear dynamic vibration absorbers mounted on Euler–Bernoulli beams subjected to moving loads. Absorbers used in this work consist of one mass, two springs and one linear damper.The springs may be considered either linear or non-linear. The objective is to compare the performance of these absorbers with classical dynamic and nonlinear absorbers. The partial differential equations governing the problem are reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations by means of Galerkin–Bubnov method. The performance of the dynamic absorbers in reduction of the beams’ vibration is estimated through the maximum amplitude of vibration and the portion of energy dissipated by the dynamic damper. Finally, after optimizations, the effectiveness of the dynamic absorbers is determined for different conditions and applications.</em></strong></div>
A Karami MohammadiOptimal Design of Sewer Network Size using Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm: Comparing Performance of Four Different Algorithms
http://jcme.iut.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=687&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>In this paper, the features of Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm </em>(<em>ACOA</em>)<em> are used to find optimal size for sewer network. Two different formulations are proposed. In the first formulation, pipes diameters and in the second formulation, nodal elevations of sewer network are taken as decision variables of the problem. In order to evaluate the performance of different ACOAs, four algorithms of Ant System, Elitist Ant System, Ranked Ant System and Max-Min Ant System are used to solve this optimization problem. Different test examples are solved using two proposed formulations for each ACOAs and the results are presented and compared with other available results. The results indicate the efficiency of the proposed methods in the solation of sewer network design optimization problem and the results of Max-Min Ant System are better in comparison with other ACOAs.</em></strong></div>
R. MoeiniThe Effect of Mechanical Anisotropy and Heterogeneity of Shear Strength Parameters of Soils on Drained Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations
http://jcme.iut.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=689&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Natural formation of soil deposits causes heterogeneity and anisotropy in their strength and stiffness properties. However, most soils in their natural states exhibit some anisotropy with respect to shear strength and heterogeneity with respect to the depth. In this paper, the standard Mohr- Coulomb constitutive law is generalized to anisotropic version in order to consider the effect of cohesion anisotropy of soil. Random field theory coupled with finite difference method was utilized in Monte Carlo simulations with considering the effect of auto-correlation and cross correlation between strength parameters of soil, in order to calculate the bearing capacity of shallow foundation in a strain controlled scheme. The results showed that the bearing capacity of shallow foundation decreases with increasing in variability of strength parameters and increases with increasing in anisotropy</em></strong><strong><em> ratio.</em></strong></div>
R. Jamshidi ChenariInvestigation of Piezoelectric Coupling and Anisotropy Effect on Acoustic Wave Propagation at LithiumNiobate Crystalloacoustic
http://jcme.iut.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=690&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>The acoustic wave velocity depends on elasticity and density at most materials, but because of anisotropy and especially piezoelectric coupling effect, the acoustic wave propagation at piezoelectric based crystalloacoustic materials, is an applied and challenging problem. In this paper, using modified Christoffel's equation based on group velocity concept, the effect of anisotropy and piezoelectric coupling at different wafers of lithium niobate crystalloacoustic (strong anisotropy) on acoustic wave velocity (semi-longitudinal, semi-vertical transverse wave and semi-horizontal transverse wave) is investigated, and validated by experimental data. Then, the acoustic wave velocity ranges that can be supported are determined. The result of this study can be essential at acoustic metamaterials design, Phononic crystal and piezoelectric based wave-guides.</em></strong></div>
M. Rahimian